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Physical Behavior of Matter
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 01 Print E-mail
Practice Questions
1. The phase change represented by the equation I2 (s) -> I2  (g) is called:

A)    Condensation

B)    Melting

C)    Sublimation

D)    Boiling

Correct Answer: Option C - Sublimation

Sublimation of an element or compound is a transition from the solid to gas phase with no intermediate liquid stage. Sublimation is an endothermic phase transition that occurs at temperatures and pressures below the triple point. At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. However, for some elements or substances at some pressures the material may pass directly from a solid into the gaseous state. This can occur if the atmospheric pressure exerted on the substance is too low to stop the molecules from escaping from the solid state.

Incorrect Answers

Condensation is the change of the physical state of aggregation (or simply state) of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, bypassing the liquid phase, the change is called deposition.

Melting is a physical process that results in the phase change of a substance from a solid to a liquid. The internal energy of a solid substance is increased, typically by the application of heat or pressure, resulting in a rise of its temperature to the melting point, at which the rigid ordering of molecular entities in the solid breaks down to a less-ordered state and the solid liquefies.

Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure. Thus, a liquid may also boil when the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere is sufficiently reduced, such as the use of a vacuum pump or at high altitudes.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 02 Print E-mail
Practice Questions
2. What is the total number of joules of heat energy absorbed by 15 grams of water when it is heated from 30°C to 40°C?

A)    630

B)    10

C)    43

D)    200

Correct Answer: Option A - 630

Use H = mcT (change in temp).

H = Heat energy absorbed

m = mass of water used

c = molar heat capacity of water

T = change in temperature of water

H = 15 g x 4.2 J/g°C x 10°C = 630 joules.

Hence, options B, C and D are incorrect.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 03 Print E-mail
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Practice Questions
3. Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, a liquid differs from a gas because the particles of the liquid:

A)    Take the shape of the container they occupy

B)    Have no regular arrangement

C)    Are in constant straight-line motion

D)    Have stronger forces of attraction between them

Correct Answer: Option D - Have stronger forces of attraction between them

Liquids and gases take the shape of the container they occupy and both have no regular arrangement (remember solids have a regular arrangement). Both liquids and gases have particles that are in constant straight-line motion. But liquids have a constant volume because the forces of attraction between the particles keep them together. Gases do not have a constant volume and the forces of attraction between particles are weaker.

Hence, options A, B and C are incorrect.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 04 Print E-mail
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Practice Questions
4. A solution in which the crystallizing rate of the solute equals the dissolving rate of the solute must be

A)    Unsaturated

B)    Saturated

C)    Concentrated

D)    Diluted

Correct Answer: Option B - Saturated

A saturated solution contains maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at constant temperature. his implies that the rate of dissolution is in equilibrium with the rate of resolution or that the solute is being solvated as fast as the solute molecules are recombining to their original state.. Equilibrium between the dissolving rate and the crystallizing rate is achieved when a solution is saturated.

Incorrect Answers

Unsaturated of course means that more solute will still dissolve in the solvent.

Concentrated solution is one that contains more solute, or reduced the amount of solvent

Dilute solution is one contains more solvent, or reduced the amount of solute.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 05 Print E-mail
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Practice Questions
5. The heat of fusion is defined as the energy required at constant temperature to change 1 unit mass of a

A)    Solid to gas

B)    Gas to liquid

C)    Solid to liquid

D)    Gas to solid

Correct Answer: Option C - Solid to liquid

Heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to convert a solid at its melting point into a liquid without an increase in temperature. Liquids release the same amount of heat when they solidify. In other words, it is the amount of energy (joules) needed to melt 1 unit of solid mass to a liquid at constant temperature. It is measured in joules/gram.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 06 Print E-mail
Practice Questions
6. The light produced by signs using neon gas results from electrons that are:

A)    Being lost by the neon atoms

B)    Moving from a lower to a higher principal energy level

C)    Being gained by the neon atoms

D)    Moving from a higher to a lower principal energy level

Correct Answer: Option D - Moving from a higher to a lower principal energy level

The voltage across a discharge tube will accelerate a free electron up to some maximum kinetic energy. The voltage must be large enough so that this energy is more than that required to ionize the atom so that an ionized atom should have an electron plucked out of an orbital to make it a free particle, and the atom it leaves behind would become a positively charged ion. The resulting plasma of charged ions and electrons carries the electric current between the tube's electrodes. The process of ionization leading to the movement of electrons from higher energy levels to lower energy levels leads to the emission of light.

Hence, options A, B and C are incorrect.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 07 Print E-mail
Practice Questions
7. At standard temperature and pressure which gas is monoatomic?

A)    Nitrogen

B)    Neon

C)    chlorine

D)    Fluorine

Correct Answer: Option B - Neon

The noble gases, group 8A, are the least reactive elements. When an energy shell is completely filled, the element does not form bonds with other atoms. It is inert or nonreactive. Thus Neon is a monatomic gas. Cl2, F2, and N2 are diatomic gases (bond with another atom. Di means two).

Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 08 Print E-mail
Practice Questions
8. A student determined the heat of fusion of water to be 366.9 J/g. If the accepted value is 333.3J/g, what is the student's percent error?

A)    10%

B)    9%

C)    15%

D)    30%

Correct Answer: Option A - 10%

Per cent of error is found by subtracting the accepted value from the calculated value, dividing by the accepted value and then multiplying by 100.

(Calculated value - accepted value) / accepted value x 100

= 366.9 - 333.6 / 333.6 x 100 = 33.3 / 333.6 x 100 = 10%

Hence, options B, C and D are incorrect.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 09 Print E-mail
Practice Questions
9. What occurs as potassium nitrate is dissolved in a beaker of water, indicating that the process is endothermic?

A)    The temperature of the solution increases.

B)    The solution changes color.

C)    The temperature of the solution decreases.

D)    The solution gives off a gas.

Correct Answer: Option C - The temperature of the solution decreases.

Endothermic reactions cause heat to be absorbed. The potassium nitrate needs heat to dissolve. It takes this heat energy from the water. As the water loses heat energy; the temperature of the water decreases.

An exothermic reaction would do the opposite; the temperature would rise with heat being given off.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
NYS Chemistry Regents Review Practice - Physical Behavior of Matter - Question 10 Print E-mail
Practice Questions
10. To determine the density of an irregularly shaped object, a student immersed the object in 21.2 mL of water in a graduated cylinder, causing the level of the water to rise to 27.8 mL. If the object had a mass of 22.4 grams, what was the density of the object.

A)    27 g / mL

B)    3.4 g/ mL

C)    6 g / mL

D)    3.4 g / mL

Correct Answer: Option B - 3.4 g/ mL

Step 1:

D = M / V

First find the volume of the object = V = 27.8 - 21.2 = 6.6 mL

M = 22.4 g

Step 2: Substitute the values of M and V in the equation - D = M / V

D = 22.4 g / 6.6 mL = 3.4 g / mL

 
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